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Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda

The knowledge which is perceived by the sense organs & mind is called Pratyaksha and the medium or is called Pratyaksha Pramana. Here knowledge is the result, while contact of the sense organs & the object is the medium of knowledge.
As we know, Charakacharya in vimanasthana said that the proper knowledge of a disease can be gained through three Pramanas-
1. Aaptopadesha Pramana
2. Pratyaksha Pramana
3. Anumana Pramana

Pratyaksha Pramana in Ayurveda

Out of these, by using Pratyaksha Pramana- except Rasa, other senses i.e. shabda, sparsha, rupa &&gandha can be perceived directly. Thus pratyaksha pramana helps in Rogi and Roga Pariksha.
To make any research, one should collect the data first, then after that analysis and final conclusion will be drawn. So for the collection of data for any research, there are two main approaches:
1) The Information which is required already exists or is available and only we have to extract it.
2) New and fresh information we have to collect.

Also as we know that, the types of data according to source are primary and secondary data. Among these, the data which is collected from primary sources are known as primary data. This can be achieved by Observation or through a questionnaire or by interview method. These methods of collection of data more or less depend upon Pratyaksha pramana. Out of other methods of observation like experiments, surveys,s and records, the experiment and up to some extent of survey method depends on this Pratyaksha pramana. The Pratyaksha pramana is dependent on five sense organs and mind, and this type of knowledge is gained directly, But it has some limitations which were mentioned in our Samhita’s as Pratyaksha Badhak bhavas. Due to these factors or Pratyaksha Badhak bhavas, the pratyaksha knowledge is not achieved or gained. These limitations can be overcome by modern scientific equipment.
For example: – Ati-sukshma (very minute/small) particles or cells are not seen by naked eyes, so here an obstacle comes for pratyaksha knowledge So to overcome this problem microscope is used. Also for aavarana i.e. due to covering one cant get direct knowledge of that structure, so to overcome this problem we can use x-ray, MRI or USG scan, etc.


  • In this way Pratyaksha helps in rogi pariksha and roga pariksha.
  • For Darshana, sparshana and prashna pariksha – It is the base for the diagnosis and prognosis of a disease.
  • To check the improvement in a patient pratyaksha is compulsory.
  • Ashtavidh pariksha, Dashavidha pariksha, Sthanik parikshan need mostly the support of Pratyaksha.
  • It gives reliable information about physical & mental changes in patient.
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