Menu Close

Concept of Tridosha – Three BioEnergies

Dosha, dhatu and mala are the basic elements of human body. Amongst these doshas are more important. Principle of ‘Purusha-loka sammit nyaya’ (Theory of macro and micro cosmos) explains that Kapha, Pitta, Vata also known as Tridosha that maintains body functions, same as the moon, the sun and the wind do it in the nature.

Definition of Dosha

Dosha (bio-energies) are structural and functional units of human body.

Function of Tridosha

Vata, Pitta, Kapha do following important functions:
1) Vata-All sorts of movements in the human body.
2) Pitta – Digestion, transformation and change.
3) Kapha -Union, stability and strength.

Each Dosha has five subtypes:
Vata – 1.Prana, 2.Udana, 3.Vyana, 4.Samana, 5.Apana
Pitta – 1. Pachaka, 2. Ranjaka, 3. Bhrajaka, 4. Sadhaka, 5. Alochaka
Kapha – 1. Kledaka, 2. Bodhaka, 3. Avalambaka, 4. Shleshaka, 5. Tarpaka


Nirukti of Dosha

‘दूषयन्ति इति दोषाः|’
(A.H.Su 1.6, Arundatta)

The literary meaning of the word dosha is that which causes decay, destruction or vitiates (others when in aggravated condition). However this is not the correct definition as we all know that when doshas are in balanced condition they carry out all prominent physiological functions and maintain health.

When doshas get disturbed, they attack other body tissues which are weak and disease is created. The elements, which get spoiled due to vitiated doshas are called as ‘dushya’ (victims). They are dhatu (body tissue), mala (wastes), organs, channels, sense organs etc. In short dushya are everything in body excluding doshas.
Knowledge about dosha is very fundamental in the process of learning Ayurveda. Concept of Tridosha has gradually evolved in Ayurveda, for example –
1) In Charaka Samhita which is the first compendia, only five types of Vata dosha have been described.
2) In Sushruta, five types of Pitta are added.
3) In the texts of Vagbhata, including Kapha all fifteen sub-doshas have been described.

Comparative understanding of TriDosha-Dhatu-Mala

Dosha-dhatu-mala are basic elements of human body. But there is some difference in their functional aspect, as tollows:

1) To maintain a healthy and clean body, it is essential to eliminate certain unwanted substances such as urine and stool. Retaining these substances inside the body for an extended period can cause harm, leading to conditions like anuria and uremia. Therefore, we refer to these substances as waste products.

2) Some other substances in the body are gradually increasing as the body grows (except in illness). The body continuously replenishes these substances, preventing wear and tear and ensuring the maintenance of the body’s structure and growth. These substances are referred to as ‘dhatu’ or body tissues. Tissues stay in the body, between the skin from outside and mucous membrane of gastro-intestinal tract internally. Excluding shukra or reproductive tissue, no other tissue leaves this boundary. When tissues protrude from the skin or penetrate the mucous membranes of organs, they can result in significant disruptions. For instance, accidents can lead to external hemorrhage, causing the loss of blood, or internal hemorrhage, both of which are severe conditions.

3) There is a third group. The elements from this group are not totally eliminated from the body like the 1st group, nor do they gradually increase like the 2nd group. In short, the elements which are not completely eliminated from the body and neither grow continuously are included in the 3rd group of Dosha or bio-energy.

error: Content is protected !!